Syria Weather and Climate
With around 185,000 square kilometers, Syria is roughly half the size of Germany. It is between 32nd and 37th degrees north latitude and 35th and 42nd degrees east longitude in the Middle East. The capital Damascus is located in the southwest of the country.
The total length of the borders is 2,253 km. Syria borders Turkey in the north with a border length of 822 km, in the east on Iraq (border 605 km), in the south on Jordan (border 375 km), in the west on Israel (border 76 km) and Lebanon(Border 375 km) and has a coastal strip on the Mediterranean Sea of 193 km. The coastline is 30 km wide. It is bordered by a plateau in the east, which predominantly consists of rocky desert and desert steppes. In the southeast and east of Syria lies the Syrian Desert. The south is characterized by volcanoes and lava fields, to the west the up to 2,800 m high mountains of Antilebanon and Hermon join.
The longest river is the Euphrates, the Syria – coming from Turkey in the north towards Iraq in the east – it flows through the plateau over a length of around 670 km. The highest mountain is the Hermon with 2,814 meters, the lowest point of -212 meters is on the east bank of the Tiberias lake (Israeli occupied).
The coastal strip has a typically Mediterranean climate; The 120 km long and 40 km wide partially forested Alawite Mountains run parallel to the 193 km long coastal strip in the northwest. Its highest peaks can be found in the north with a height of up to 1754 m. The Orontes flows around the mountains in the north and east. This particularly fertile Orontestal appears to be the core area of Syria, as a high proportion of the population is concentrated in the agriculturally profitable region.. The anti-Lebanon rises further south. Its foothills merge into the Golan Heights and drop down to the Yarmuktal. Northeast Syria is also very fertile. The 400 m high Jezira plain lies in the Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and the Tigris. The east of Syria is dominated by the stone and steppe desert, which occupies over 60% of the total state area. It is an extension of the Arabian desert.
In Damascus, Aleppo and inland there is a continental climate, with hot summers and cold and sometimes humid winter months (around December to February) with rainfall between 600 – 1,000 mm on the coast, 400 mm in the steppe region, in the east and south-east to only another 100 mm.