Russia Weather and Climate
Russia is located in the eastern part of Europe and in the northern part of Asia and, with an area of 17,098,200 square kilometers, is the largest country in the world. The country extends over 9,000 kilometers from west to east and over 4,000 kilometers from north to south and is divided into eleven time zones – from UTC + 2 to UTC + 12.
The total length of the national borders is 20,017 kilometers, the coastline comprises 37,653 kilometers. The Russian Federation, together with the People’s Republic of China, has the largest number of neighboring states in the world, each with fourteen neighboring countries. Russia borders with Norway, Finland, Poland (with the exclave of Kaliningrad), Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, the People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea).
All climates, from arctic to subtropical, are represented in Russia. In most parts of the country there is a temperate climate with a steady change of seasons, with long cold and snowy winters and relatively short but warm summers.
The continental character of the climate increases significantly in the north of the Far East and in Siberia, where the climate becomes extremely continental. In eastern Siberia, in the Oymyakon Valley, there is one of the “cold poles” of the northern hemisphere, where the absolute minimum temperature of -71 degrees Celsius was measured. In the western and eastern fringes of Russiathat are subject to the influence of the oceans, in turn, occur different types of climate: marine climate, transitional continental climate with signs of marine climate (in the northwest) and monsoons (in the south of the Far East). The islands and the mainland of the coasts of the Arctic Ocean have a severe arctic and sub-arctic climate. A subtropical climate with warm, humid winters and dry, short summers, on the other hand, are characteristic of the health resort zone on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.
With the exception of the Black Sea coast, the average temperatures in January are everywhere below freezing point. Summer temperatures have major differences: while be in the far north, the average temperature in June 1 to 2 degrees Celsius, it is in Moscow 19 degrees and steppe regions of the south 25 degrees. The average amount of precipitation in the lowlands is 600 to 800 mm and increases to over 1000 mm in the northern Urals and the Far Eastern mountains.
Permafrost occurs on 47% of the country’s area. In northern Russia and in large parts of Siberia and the Far East, it makes agricultural cultivation difficult and affects the construction and maintenance of buildings and traffic systems.
Sufficiently favorable cultivation conditions are only available in the so-called agricultural triangle: It extends from the western border of Russia in a wedge shape to the east to the central Volga, the southern Urals and southern western Siberia. Natural limits are set by low temperatures in the north and low rainfall in the south.