Time – 35 minutes

25 Questions

1. Which of the following best completes the passage below?

In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because----.

(A) some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest

(B) some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest

(C) some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest

(D) some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly

(E) some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest

Questions 2-3 are based on the following.

The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana.


2. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage?

(A) Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average Louisianian's life.

(B) The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate.

(C) The longevity ascribed to Hawaii's current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors.

(D) Thirty percent of all Louisianians can expect to live longer than 77 years.

(E) Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United States.


3. Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the passage?

(A) As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised downward.

(B) Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana.

(C) Twenty-five percent of all Louisianians who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years.

(D) Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianians than for Hawaiians.

(E) Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii.


4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the claims that would be made.

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X's losses on the policies?

(A) Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years

(B) Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children

(C) Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost

(D) Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies

(E) Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services


5. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children's future college tuition at current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state's public colleges in which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their children's college education.

Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents not to participate in the program?

(A) The parents are unsure about which pubic college in the state the child will attend.

(B) The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the pubic colleges when the child enrolls.

(C) The annual cost of tuition at the state's pubic colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the annual increase in the cost of living

(D) Some of the state's public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.

(E) The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state's public colleges.


6. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay less for the coupons than they would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This marketing of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.

To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the

(A) number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year

(B) use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families

(C) days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday

(D) amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued

(E) number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons


7. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows only on the front windshield, was turned on full force.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which the ice melted?

(A) The side windows had no ice condensation on them.

(B) Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did the ice on the front windshield.

(C) The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window increases.

(D) The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the rest of the car.

(E) The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces of the driver and passengers, is on.


8. To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded, however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials from earning a livelihood for three years.

The official's conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials.

(B) Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials.

(C) Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service.

(D) High-level government officials who leave government service are capable of earning a livelihood only as lobbyists.

(E) High-level government officials who leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists for only three years.


9. A conservation group in the United States is trying to change the long-standing image of bats as frightening creatures. The group contends that bats are feared and persecuted solely because they are shy animals that are active only at night.

Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the accuracy of the group's contention?

(A) Bats are steadily losing natural roosting places such as caves and hollow trees and are thus turning to more developed areas for roosting.

(B) Bats are the chief consumers of nocturnal insects and thus can help make their hunting territory more pleasant for humans.

(C) Bats are regarded as frightening creatures not only in the United States but also in Europe, Africa, and South America.

(D) Raccoons and owls are shy and active only at night; yet they are not generally feared and persecuted.

(E) People know more about the behavior of other greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and snakes, than they do about the behavior of bats.


10. Meteorite explosions in the Earth's atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with approximately the force of a twelve-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.

The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected circumstances is unpredictable.

Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn, if the statements above are true, about a highly automated nuclear-missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program?

(A) Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a nuclear war.

(B) The system would be destroyed if an explosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth's atmosphere.

(C) It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.

(D) Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on the location of the blast.

(E) It is not certain what the system's response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers did not plan for such a contingency.

Questions 11-12 are based on the following.

The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.

11. If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.

(B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.

(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.

(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.

(E) If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services.


12. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument concerning overall consumer legal costs?

(A) The state has recently removed some other restrictions that had limited the advertising of legal services.

(B) The state is unlikely to remove all of the restrictions that apply solely to the advertising of legal services.

(C) Lawyers who do not advertise generally provide legal services of the same quality as those provided by lawyers who do advertise.

(D) Most lawyers who now specify fee arrangements in their advertisements would continue to do so even if the specification were not required.

(E) Most lawyers who advertise specific services do not lower their fees for those services when they begin to advertise.


13. Defense Department analysts worry that the ability of the United States to wage a prolonged war would be seriously endangered if the machine-tool manufacturing base shrinks further. Before the Defense Department publicly connected this security issue with the import quota issue, however, the machine-tool industry raised the national security issue in its petition for import quotas.

Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the machine-tool industry's raising the issue above regarding national security?

(A) When the aircraft industries retooled, they provided a large amount of work for tool builders.

(B) The Defense Department is only marginally concerned with the effects of foreign competition on the machine-tool industry.

(C) The machine-tool industry encountered difficulty in obtaining governmental protection against imports on grounds other than defense.

(D) A few weapons important for defense consist of parts that do not require extensive machining.

(E) Several federal government programs have been designed which will enable domestic machine-tool manufacturing firms to compete successfully with foreign toolmakers.


14. Opponents of laws that require automobile drivers and passengers to wear seat belts argue that in a free society people have the right to take risks as long as the people do not harm others as a result of taking the risks. As a result, they conclude that it should be each person's decision whether or not to wear a seat belt.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn above?

(A) Many new cars are built with seat belts that automatically fasten when someone sits in the front seat.

(B) Automobile insurance rates for all automobile owners are higher because of the need to pay for the increased injuries or deaths of people not wearing seat belts.

(C) Passengers in airplanes are required to wear seat belts during takeoffs and landings.

(D) The rate of automobile fatalities in states that do not have mandatory seat-belt laws is greater than the rate of fatalities in states that do have such laws.

(E) In automobile accidents, a greater number of passengers who do not wear seat belts are injured than are passengers who do wear seat belts.


15. The cost of producing radios in Country Q is ten percent less than the cost of producing radios in Country Y. Even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a company to import radios from Country Q to Country Y than to produce radios in Country Y.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

(A) Labor costs in Country Q are ten percent below those in Country Y.

(B) Importing radios from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate ten percent of the manufacturing jobs in Country Y.

(C) The tariff on a radio imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Y.

(D) The fee for transporting a radio from Country Q to Country Y is more than ten percent of the cost of manufacturing the radio in Country Q.

(E) It takes ten percent less time to manufacture a radio in Country Q than it does in Country Y.


16. During the Second World War, about 375,000 civilians died in the United States and about 408,000 members of the United States armed forces died overseas. On the basis of those figures, it can be concluded that it was not much more dangerous to be overseas in the armed forces during the Second World War than it was to stay at home as a civilian.

Which of the following would reveal most clearly the absurdity of the conclusion drawn above?

(A) Counting deaths among members of the armed forces who served in the United States in addition to deaths among members of the armed forces serving overseas

(B) Expressing the difference between the numbers of deaths among civilians and members of the armed forces as a percentage of the total number of deaths

(C) Separating deaths caused by accidents during service in the armed forces from deaths caused by combat injuries

(D) Comparing death rates per thousand members of each group rather than comparing total numbers of deaths

(E) Comparing deaths caused by accidents in the United States to deaths caused by combat in the armed forces.


17. One state adds a 7 percent sales tax to the price of most products purchased within its jurisdiction. This tax, therefore, if viewed as tax on income, has the reverse effect of the federal income tax: the lower the income, the higher the annual percentage rate at which the income is taxed.

The conclusion above would be properly drawn if which of the following were assumed as a premise?

(A) The amount of money citizens spend on products subject to the state tax tends to be equal across income levels.

(B) The federal income tax favors citizens with high incomes, whereas the state sales tax favors citizens with low incomes.

(C) Citizens with low annual incomes can afford to pay a relatively higher percentage of their incomes in state sales tax, since their federal income tax is relatively low.

(D) The lower a state's sales tax, the more it will tend to redistribute income from the more affluent citizens to the rest of society.

(E) Citizens who fail to earn federally taxable income are also exempt from the state sales tax.


18. The average age of chief executive officers (CEO's) in a large sample of companies is 57. The average age of CEO's in those same companies 20 years ago was approximately eight years younger. On the basis of those data, it can be concluded that CEO's in general tend to be older now.

Which of the following casts the most doubt on the conclusion drawn above?

(A) The dates when the CEO's assumed their current positions have not been specified.

(B) No information is given concerning the average number of years that CEO's remain in office.

(C) The information is based only on companies that have been operating for at least 20 years.

(D) Only approximate information is given concerning the average age of the CEO's 20 years ago.

(E) Information concerning the exact number of companies in the sample has not been given.

Questions 19-20 are based on the following.

Surveys show that every year only 10 percent of cigarette smokers switch brands. Yet the manufacturers have been spending an amount equal to 10 percent of their gross receipts on cigarette promotion in magazines. It follows from these figures that inducing cigarette smokers to switch brands did not pay, and that cigarette companies would have been no worse off economically if they had dropped their advertising.

19. Of the following, the best criticism of the conclusion that inducing cigarette smokers to switch brands did not pay is that the conclusion is based on

(A) computing advertising costs as a percentage of gross receipts, not of overall costs

(B) past patterns of smoking and may not carry over to the future

(C) the assumption that each smoker is loyal to a single brand of cigarettes at any one time

(D) the assumption that each manufacturer produces only one brand of cigarettes

(E) figures for the cigarette industry as a whole and may not hold for a particular company


20. Which of the following, if true, most serinously weakens the conclusion that cigarette companies could have dropped advertising without suffering economically?

(A) Cigarette advertisements provide a major proportion of total advertising revenue for numerous magazines.

(B) Cigarette promotion serves to attract first-time smokers to replace those people who have stopped smoking.

(C) There exists no research conclusively demon­strating that increases in cigarette advertising are related to increases in smoking.

(D) Advertising is so firmly established as a major business activity of cigarette manufacturers that they would be unlikely to drop it.

(E) Brand loyalty is typically not very strong among those who smoke inexpensive cigarettes.

21. A drug that is highly effective in treating many types of infection can, at present, be obtained only from the bark of the ibora, a tree that is quite rare in the wild. It takes the bark of 5,000 tree to make one kilogram of the drug. It follows, therefore, that continued production of the drug must inevitably lead to the ibora's extinction.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?

(A) The drug made from ibora bark is dispensed to doctors from a central authority.

(B) The drug made from ibora bark is expensive to produce.

(C) The leaves of the ibora are used in a number of medical products.

(D) The ibora can be propagated from cuttings and grown under cultivation.

(E) The ibora generally grows in largely inaccessible places.


22. High levels of fertilizer and pesticides, needed when farmers try to produce high yield of the same crop year after year, pollute water supplies. Experts therefore urge farmers to diversify their crops and to rotate their plantings yearly.

To receive governmental price-support benefits for a crop, farmers must have produced that same crop for the past several years.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following conclusions?

(A) The rules for governmental support of farm prices work against efforts to reduce water pollution.

(B) The only solution to the problem of water pollution from fertilizers and pesticides is to take farmland out of production.

(C) Farmers can continue to make a profit by rotating diverse crops, thus reducing costs for chemicals, but not by planting the same crop each year.

(D) New farming techniques will be developed to make it possible for farmers to reduce the application of fertilizers and pesticides.

(E) Governmental price supports for farm products are set at levels that are not high enough to allow farmers to get out of debt.


23. Shelby Industries manufactures and sells the same gauges as Jones Industries. Employee wages account for forty percent of the cost of manufacturing gauges at both Shelby Industries and Jones Industries. Shelby Industries is seeking a competitive advantage over Jones Industries. Therefore, to promote this end, Shelby Industries should lower employee wages.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?

(A) Because they make a small number of precision instruments, gauge manufacturers cannot receive volume discounts on raw materials.

(B) Lowering wages would reduce the quality of employee work, and this reduced quality would lead to lowered sales.

(C) Jones Industries has taken away twenty percent of Shelby Industries' business over the last year.

(D) Shelby Industries pays its employees, on average, ten percent more than does Jones Industries.

(E) Many people who work for manufacturing plants live in areas in which the manufacturing plant they work for is the only industry.


24. Some communities in Florida are populated almost exclusively by retired people and contain few, if any, families with small children. Yet these communities are home to thriving businesses specializing in the rental of furniture for infants and small children.

Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the seeming discrepancy described above?

(A) The businesses specializing in the rental of children's furniture buy their furniture from distributors outside of Florida.

(B) The few children who do reside in these communities all know each other and often make overnight visits to one another's houses.

(C) Many residents of these communities who move frequently prefer renting their furniture to buying it outright.

(D) Many residents of these communities must provide for the needs of visiting grandchildren several weeks a year.

(E) Children's furniture available for rental is of the same quality as that available for sale in the stores.

25. Large national budget deficits do not cause large trade deficits. If they did, countries with the largest budget deficits would also have the largest trade deficits. In fact, when deficit figures are adjusted so that different countries are reliably comparable to each other, there is no such correlation.

If the statements above are all true, which of the following can properly be inferred on the basis of them?

(A) Countries with large national budget deficits tend to restrict foreign trade.

(B) Reliable comparisons of the deficit figures of one country with those of another are impossible.

(C) Reducing a country's national budget deficit will not necessarily result in a lowering of any trade deficit that country may have.

(D) When countries are ordered from largest to smallest in terms of population, the smallest countries generally have the smallest budget and trade deficits.

(E) Countries with the largest trade deficits never have similarly large national budget deficits.


Time – 35 minutes

25 Questions

Questions 1-8

A bakery makes nine kinds of cookies. Of these nine, three kinds are fruit cookies--G, H, and J; three kinds are nut cookies--K, L, and O; and three kinds are plain cookies--X, Y, and Z. Each day of the week, Monday through Sunday, the bakery will feature a special price on exactly three different kinds of cookies. The three featured cookies will be selected according to the following rules:

Each day at least one fruit cookie must be featured, and each day at least one nut cookie must be featured.

On any day on which cookie J is featured, cookie L cannot be featured.

On any day on which cookie k is featured, cookie Y must also be featured.

No kind of cookie can be featured more than three times in a week.

1.Which of the following lists three cookies that can be featured together?

(A) G, L, Z

(B) H, K, X

(C) J, L, Y

(D) J, O, Z

(E) K, O, Y

2. On a day on which both cookie L and cookie Z are featured, which of the following can be the third kind of cookie featured?

(A) H

(B) J

(C) O

(D) X

(E) Y

3.A partial schedule of featured cookies is shown below.

Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday Thursday  Friday

L        H       O       G      Z

According to this schedule, which of the following is a day on which cookie X CANNOT be one of the featured cookies?

(A) Monday

(B) Tuesday

(C) Wednesday

(D) Thursday

(E) Friday

4.If cookie J is featured on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday; if cookie K is featured on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, and if cookie G is featured only on Thursday, then cookie L can be featured on

(A) Monday only

(B) Thursday only

(C) Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday only

(D) Friday, Saturday, and Sunday only

(E) any two of the first four days of the week

5. If each kind of nut cookie is featured three times in one week, what is the maximum number or days on which plain cookies can be featured during that week?

(A) Three

(B) Four

(C) Five

(D) Six

(E) Seven

6.If cookie H and cookie Y are each featured on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, and if cookie G and cookie X are each featured on Thursday, Friday and Saturday, then the cookies featured on Sunday must include both

(A) J and K

(B) J and L

(C) J and O

(D) K and L

(E) K and Z

7.If exactly seven kinds of cookies are featured during one week, which of the following must be true about that week?

(A) X is the only kind of plain cookie that is featured

(B) Y is the only kind of plain cookie that is featured

(C) Z is the only kind of plain cookie that is featured.

(D) On at least one day, both cookie G and cookie Z are featured.

(E) On at least one day, both cookie J and cookie X are featured.

8.If cookie X is featured exactly twice and cookie Z is featured exactly three times in one week, which of the following must be true?

(A)Cookie G is featured exactly three times during the week.

(B)Cookie J is featured at most twice during the week.

(C)Cookie K is featured at most twice during the week.

(D)Cookie L is featured at most twice during the week.

(E) Cookie Y is featured exactly twice during the week.

9. In recent years, there has been a dramatic decline in the population of the shrike, a predatory bird that inhabits flat land, such as farms and pastures. Some ornithologists hypothesize that this decline is due to the introduction of new, more effective pesticides to control the insect species on which shrikes prey.

The answer to which of the following questions is NOT relevant to evaluating the ornithologists' hypothesis?

(A) Was there a decline in the shrike population before the new pesticides were first used?

(B) Have shrike populations declined significantly in those habitats where the new pesticides have not been used?

(C) Have the new pesticides more significantly reduced the population of insect species on which shrikes prey than did the pesticides previously used?

(D) Are insects that have consumed the new pesticides more toxic to the shrikes that eat those insects than were insects that consumed the less effective pesticides?

(E) Are the new pesticides considered by most people to be less harmful to the environment than the old pesticides were considered to be?

10. Census data for Prenland show that unmarried Prenlandic men in their thirties outnumber unmarried Prenlandic women in that age group by about ten to One. Most of these men do wish to marry. Clearly, however, unless many of them marry women who are not Prenlandic, all but a minority will remain unmarried.

The argument makes which of the following assumptions?

(A) Emigration from Preland is more common among women than among men.

(B) A greater proportion of Prelandic women in their thirties than of Prenlandic men of the same age would prefer to remain unmarried.

(C) It is unlikely that many of these unmarried Prenlandic men will marry women more than a few years older than themselves.

(D) Prenland has a high rate of divorce.

(E) Most of the unmarried Prenlandic men are unwilling to marry women who are not Prenlandic.

11.Certain extremely harmful bacteria found only in sewage are difficult to detect directly. Testing for E. coli, an easily detected and less harmful type of bacteria, in ocean water would be a reliable way of determining whether or not these more harmful bacteria are present, since ocean water contains E. Coli only if the water is contaminated with sewage that contains the harmful bacteria.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) There are many different strains of the E. coli bacteria, and only some of these strains are harmful.

(B) Some types of bacteria found in sewage are neither disease-causing nor difficult to detect directly.

(C) Some of the types of bacteria found in sewage along with E. coli are not harmful to people unless the bacteria are ingested in large quantities.

(D) E. coli dies out much more quickly than some of the more harmful bacteria found in sewage and then can no longer be easily detected.

(E) Some of the types of bacteria found in sewage along with E. coli reproduce at a slower rate than E. coli.

Questions 12-17

A bank has exactly four cashier windows, arranged in a row and numbered consecutively 1through 4 from one end of the row to the other. The bank has exactly six cashiers: two supervisors (Joan and Karim); and four trainees (Lorraine, Mark, Nora, and patrick). Throughout a particular peak-hour period,  the stationing of cashiers at windows is restricted as follows:

There must be exactly one cashier at each window.

The cashier at window 2 must be a supervisor.

Lorraine must be at a window but cannot be at window 3.

If Mark is at one of the windows, Joan must be at a window immediately adjacent to it.

The cashiers at the windows must include either Nora or Patrick, but they cannot include both Nora and Patrick.

12.Which of the following lists the cashiers who can be stationed at windows 1 through 4 during this period?

  1        2      3           4 

(A) Joan        Karim Mark  Lorraine

(B) Joan        Karim Nora Lorraine

(C) Karim      Nora  Joan Lorraine

(D) Mark       Joan  Lorraine  Patrick

(E) Patrick    Joan  Nora Lorraine

13.Which of the following must be true about the stationing of the cashiers during this period?

(A) Joan is at window 1 or at window 2.

(B) Karim is at window 2 or at window 4.

(C) Lorraine is at window 1 or window 4.

(D) Nora is at window 1 or at window 3.

(E) Patrick is at window 3 or at window 4.

14.If during this period Patrick and Mark, not necessarily in that order, are stationed at immediately adjacent windows, which of the following must be stationed at window 4 during this period?

(A) Joan

(B) Karim

(C) Lorraine

(D) Mark

(E) Patrick

15.If during this period Lorraine and Mark, not necessarily in that order, are stationed at immediately adjacent windows, which of the following can be stationed at window 1 during this period?

(A) Joan

(B) Karim

(C) Lorraine

(D) Mark

(E) Nora

16.If during this period Lorrained and Nora, not necessarily in that order, are stationed at immediately adjacent windows, which of the following must be true during this period?

(A) Joan is stationed at window 1.

(B) Joan is stationed at window 2.

(C) Karim is stationed at window 2

(D) Nora is stationed at windows 3.

(E) Patrick is stationed at window 1.

17.If during this period Mark is stationed at a window, which of the following CANNOT be stationed at a window during this period?

(A) Joan

(B) Karim

(C) Lorraine

(D) Nora

(E) Patrick

Questions 18-22

Seven photographs--three landscapes: F, H, and J; and four still lifes: Q, R, T and W--will appear on the first seven pages--numbered consecutively from page 1 through page 7--of an exhibit catalog. Each page will contain exactly one of the photographs. The ordering of the photographs in the catalog is governed by the following


J and W, not necessarily in that order, must appear on consecutively numbered pages.

The three landscapes cannot appear on-consecutively numbered pages.

Neither page 2 not page 4 is a page on which a landscape can appear.

A landscape must appear on page 7

18.Which of the following is an acceptable ordering of the photographs in the catalog?

Page 1   Page 2 page 3 Page 4  page 5 page 6 page 7

(A)  F         T      H          Q       W      R       J

(B)  H   Q    J            W      R       F       T

(C)  J        W     H          R       T       Q       F

(D)  Q       T      R           W      J        F       H

(E)  T        F      Q           W      J        R       H

19.Any of the following can appear on page 3 EXCEPT

(A) J

(B) Q

(C) R

(D) T

(E) W

20. If F appears on page 6, H must appear on page

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 5

(E) 7

21.If the still lifes all appear on consecutive pages, which of the following must be true?

(A) A still life appears on page 1.

(B) A still life appears on page 5.

(C) J appears on page 6.

(D) T appears on page 4.

(E) W appears on page 5

22.If F and H, not necessarily in that order, appear on consecutive pages, which of the following can be true?

(A) J appears on page 1

(B) J appears on page 5

(C) R appears on page 6

(D) W appears on page 1

(E) W appears on page 5

23.The organizers of tomorrow's outdoor concert announced that it will go on tomorrow on schedule unless bad weather is forecast or too few advance tickets are sold. If the concert is canceled, refunds will be made to ticket holders. Since some ticket holders have already been issued refunds even though more than enough advance tickets were sold, it must be the case that bad weather is forecast.

Which of the following is an error of reasoning contained in the argument?

(A) It proceeds as if a condition, which by itself is enough to guarantee a certain result, is the only condition under which that result would occur.

(B) It bases a conclusion that is known to require two conditions on evidence that bears on only one of those conditions.

(C) It explains one event as being caused by another event, even though both events must actually have been caused by some third, unidentified event.

(D) It treats evidence for the absence of one condition under which a circumstance would occur as conclusive evidence that that circumstance will not occur.

(E) Evidence given to support the conclusion actually undermines it.

24. Although the prevailing supposition has been that it is too hot for microorganisms to survive deep below the Earth's surface, some scientists argue that there are living communities of microorganisms there that have been cut off from surface life for millions of years. These scientists base their argument on the discovery of living microorganisms in samples of material that were taken from holes drilled as deep as 1.74 miles.

The scientists' argument depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A)The microorganisms brought up were of a species that is related to those previously known to science.

(B)No holes have been drilled into the Earth's surface to a distance deeper than 1.74 miles

(C)The microorganisms did not come from surface soil that came into contact with the drilling equipment.

(D) The stratum from which the samples came has been below the surface of the Earth ever since the Earth came into existence.

(E) The temperature at the bottom of the holes drilled was not significantly hotter than that of the hottest spots on the Earth's surface.

25. For 20 years all applicants for jobs as technicians at EquipCorp were required to demonstrate that they could operate and repair the machinery that was central to EquipCorp's manufacturing business. Now, however, that particular machinery is obsolete, and very different machinery fills the central role. Therefore, the old requirement is no longer a useful method for evaluating whether applicants for jobs as technicians at EquipCorp have the skills necessary for the job. 

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) The machinery that is now obsolete was used by a large number of manufacturing companies before it became obsolete.

(B) Among the people already holding jobs as technicians at Equip Corp, those who are most skillful at operating the new machinery had been some of the least skillful at operating the old machinery

(C) Most people applying for jobs as technicians today have much broader skills than did people applying for jobs as technicians 20 years ago.

(D) The skills required to operate and repair the obsolete machinery are useful in operating and maintaining many other types of machinery at EquipCorp that are not obsolete.

(E) Much of the machinery that EquipCorp now uses in manufacturing is very likely to become obsolete within the next 20 years.


Time – 35 minutes

25 Questions

Questions 1-9

Caffeine, the stimulant in coffee, has been called

" the most widely used psychoactive substance on Earth ."

Synder, Daly and Bruns have recently proposed that

caffeine affects behavior by countering the activity in

(5) the human brain of a naturally occurring chemical called

  adenosine. Adenosine normally depresses neuron firing

  in many areas of the brain. It apparently does this by

  inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals

  that carry nerve impulses from one neuron to the next.

(10) Like many other agents that affect neuron firing,

adenosine must first bind to specific receptors on

neuronal membranes. There are at least two classes

of these receptors, which have been designated A1 and

A2. Snyder et al propose that caffeine, which is struc-

(15)  turally similar to adenosine, is able to bind to both types

of receptors, which prevents adenosine from attaching

there and allows the neurons to fire more readily than

they otherwise would.

For many years, caffeine's effects have been attri-

(20)  buted to its inhibition of the production of phosphodi-

esterase, an enzyme that breaks down the chemical

called cyclic AMP.A number of neurotransmitters exert

their effects by first increasing cyclic AMP concentra-

tions in target neurons. Therefore, prolonged periods at

(25)  the elevated concentrations, as might be brought about

by a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, could lead to a greater

amount of neuron firing and, consequently, to behav-

ioral stimulation. But Snyder et al point out that the

caffeine concentrations needed to inhibit the production

(30)  of phosphodiesterase in the brain are much higher than

those that produce stimulation. Moreover, other com-

pounds that block phosphodiesterase's activity are not


  To buttress their case that caffeine acts instead by pre-

(35)  venting adenosine binding, Snyder et al compared the

stimulatory effects of a series of caffeine derivatives with

their ability to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in

the brains of mice. " In general," they reported, " the

ability of the compounds to compete at the receptors

(40) correlates with their ability to stimulate locomotion in

the mouse; i.e., the higher their capacity to bind at the

receptors, the higher their ability to stimulate locomo-

tion." Theophylline, a close structural relative of caffeine

and the major stimulant in tea, was one of the most

(45) effective compounds in both regards.

  There were some apparent exceptions to the general

correlation observed between adenosine-receptor binding

and stimulation. One of these was a compound called

  3-isobuty1-1-methylxanthine(IBMX), which bound very

(50) well but actually depressed mouse locomotion. Snyder

et al suggest that this is not a major stumbling block to

their hypothesis. The problem is that the compound has

mixed effects in the brain, a not unusual occurrence with

psychoactive drugs. Even caffeine, which is generally

 (55) known only for its stimulatory effects, displays this

 property, depressing mouse locomotion at very low 

 concentrations and stimulating it at higher ones.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) discuss a plan for investigation of a phenomenon that is not yet fully understood

(B) present two explanations of a phenomenon and reconcile the differences between them

(C) summarize two theories and suggest a third theory that overcomes the problems encountered in the first two 

(D) describe an alternative hypothesis and provide evidence and arguments that support it

(E) challenge the validity of a theory by exposing the inconsistencies and contradictions in it 

 2. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the theory proposed by Snyder et al?

(A) At very low concentrations in the human brain. both caffeine and theophylline tend to have depressive rather than stimulatory effects on human behavior.

(B) The ability of caffeine derivatives at very low concentrations to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in mouse brains correlates well with their ability to stimulate mouse locomotion at these low concentrations

(C) The concentration of cyclic AMP in target neurons in the human brain that leads to increased neuron firing can be produced by several different phosphodi esterase inhibitors in addition to caffeine.

(D) The concentration of caffeine required to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in the human brain is much greater than the concentration that produces behavioral stimulation in humans.

(E) The concentration of IBMX required to dislodge adenosine from its receptors in mouse brains is much smaller than the concentration that stimulates locomotion in the mouse.

3. According so Snyder et al, caffeine differs from adenosine in that caffeine

(A) stimulates behavior in the mouse and in humans, whereas adenosine stimulates behavior in humans only

(B) has mixed effects in the brain, whereas adenosine has only a stimulatory effect

(C) increases cyclic AMP concentrations in target neurons, whereas adenosine decreases such concentrations

(D) permits release of neurotransmitters when it is bound to adenosine receptors, whereas adenosine inhibits such release

(E) inhibits both neuron firing and the production of phosphodiesterase when there is a sufficient concentration in the brain, whereas adenosine inhibits only neuron firing

4. In response to experimental results concerning IBMX, Snyder et al contended that it is not uncommon for psychoactive drugs to have

(A) mixed effects in the brain

(B) inhibitory effects on enzymes in the brain

(C) close structural relationships with caffeine

(D) depressive effects on mouse locomotion

(E) the ability to dislodge caffeine from receptors in the brain

5. The passage suggests that Snyder et al believe that if the older theory concerning caffeine's effects were correct, which of the following would have to be the case?

 I. All neurotransmitters would increase the short-term concentration of cyclic AMP in target neurons.

 II. Substances other than caffeine that inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase would be stimulants.

 III. All concentration levels of caffeine that are high enough to produce stimulation would also inhibit the production of phosphodiesterase.

(A) I only  

(B) I and II only

(C) I and III only  

(D) II and III only

(E) I, II, and III

6. According to Snyder et al, all of the following compounds can bind to specific receptors in the brain EXCEPT


(B) caffeine

(C) adenosine

(D) theophylline

(E) phosphodiesterase

7. Snyder et al suggest that caffeine's ability to bind to A1 and A2 receptors can be at least partially attributed to which of the following?

(A) The chemical relationship between caffeine and phosphodiesterase

(B) The structural relationship between caffeine and adenosine

(C) The structural similarity between caffeine and neurotransmitters

(D) The ability of caffeine to stimulate behavior

(E) The natural occurrence of caffeine and adenosine in the brain

8. The author quotes Snyder et al in lines 38-43 most probably in order to

(A) reveal some of the assumptions underlying their theory

(B) summarize a major finding of their experiments

(C) point out that their experiments were limited to the mouse

(D) indicate that their experiments resulted only in general correlations

(E) refute the objections made by supporters of the older theory

9. The last paragraph of the passage performs which of the following functions?

(A) Describes a disconfirming experimental result and reports the explanation given by Snyder et al in an attempt to reconcile this result with their theory.

(B) Specifies the basis for the correlation observed by Snyder et al and presents an explanation in an attempt to make the correlation consistent with the operation of psychoactive drugs other than caffeine.

(C) Elaborates the description of the correlation observed by Snyder et al and suggests an additional explanation in an attempt to make the correlation consistent with the older theory.

(D) Reports inconsistent experimental data and describes the method Snyder et al will use to reanalyze this data.

(E) Provides an example of the hypothesis proposed by Snyder et al and relates this example to caffeine's properties.

Questions 10-16

  Archaeology as a profession faces two major prob-

lems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry

sums are available for excavating and even less is avail-

able for publishing the results and preserving the sites

(5)  once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless

objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal

excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being

sold to the highest bidder.

I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that

(10) would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and

reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose

that scientific archeological expeditions and govern-

mental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open

market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for

(15) the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites

and the publication of results. At the same time, they

would break the illegal excavator's grip on the market,

thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal


(20)   You might object that professionals excavate to

acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient arti-

facts are part of our global cultural heritage, which

should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the

highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique

(25) artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply,

everything that comes our of the ground has scientific

value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be

correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scien-

tific value. Practically, you are wrong.

(30) I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient

lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In

one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently

uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in

a single courtyard, Even precious royal seal impressions

(35) known as/melekh handles have been found in abun-

dance---more than 4,000 examples so far.

The basements of museums are simply not large

enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discov-

ered in the future. There is not enough money even to

(40) catalogue the finds; as a result, they cannot be found

again and become as inaccessible as if they had never

been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer,

sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the

pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to

(45) sale, each could be photographed and the list of the

purchasers could be maintained on the computer A

purchaser could even be required to agree to return the

piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.

It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging

(50) would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market.

But the demand for the clandestine product would be

substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked

pot when another was available whose provenance was

known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the

professional archaeologist who excavated it?

10. The primary purpose of the passage is to propose

(A) an alternative to museum display of artifacts

(B) a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession

(C) a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value from those that have no such value

(D) the governmental regulation of archaeological sites

(E) a new system for cataloguing duplicate artifacts

11. The author implies that all of the following statements

  about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT:

(A) A market for such artifacts already exists.

(B) Such artifacts seldom have scientific value.

(C) There is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts.

(D) Museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts.

(E) Such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already catalogued in museum collections.

12. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements?

(A) Museum officials rarely allow scholars access to such artifacts.

(B) Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage.

(C) Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become separated from each other.

(D) Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in temperature and humidity.

(E) Such artifacts' often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage.

13. The author mentions the excavation in Cyprus (lines 31-34) to emphasize which of the following points?

(A) Ancient lamps and pottery vessels are less valuable, although more rare, than royal seal impressions.

(B) Artifacts that are very similar to each other present cataloguing difficulties to archaeologists.

(C) Artifacts that are not uniquely valuable, and therefore could be sold, are available in large quantities.

(D) Cyprus is the most important location for unearthing large quantities of salable artifacts.

(E) Illegal sales of duplicate artifacts are wide-spread, particularly on the island of Cyprus.

14. The author's argument concerning the effect of the official sale of duplicate artifacts on illegal excavation is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Prospective purchasers would prefer to buy authenticated artifacts.

(B) The price of illegally excavated artifacts would rise.

(C) Computers could be used to trace sold artifacts.

(D) Illegal excavators would be forced to sell only duplicate artifacts.

(E) Money gained from selling authenticated artifacts could be used to investigate and prosecute illegal excavators.

15. The author anticipates which of the following initial objections to the adoption of his proposal?

(A) Museum officials will become unwilling to store artifacts.

(B) An oversupply of salable artifacts will result and the demand for them will fall.

(C) Artifacts that would have been displayed in public places will be sold to private collectors.

(D) Illegal excavators will have an even larger supply of artifacts for resale.

(E) Counterfeiting of artifacts will become more commonplace.

16. The author implies that which of the following would occur if duplicate artifacts were sold on the open market?

 I. Illegal excavation would eventually cease completely.

 II. Cyprus would become the primary source of marketable duplicate artifacts

 III. Archaeologists would be able to publish the results of their excavations more frequently than they currently do.

(A) I only     

(B) III only

(C) I and II only   

(D) II and III only

(E) I, II, and III

Questions 17-25

  Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the

1960's when the Small Business Administration (SBA)

began making federally guaranteed loans and govern-

ment-sponsored management and technical assistance

(5) available to minority business enterprises. While this

program enabled many minority entrepreneurs to

form new businesses, the results were disappointing,

since managerial inexperience, unfavorable locations,

and capital shortages led to high failure rates. Even 15

(10) years after the program was implemented, minority      

  business receipts were not quite two percent of the national

  economy's total receipts.

Recently federal policymakers have adopted an

approach intended to accelerate development of the

(15) minority business sector by moving away from directly

aiding small minority enterprises and toward supporting

larger, growth-oriented minority firms through interme-

diary companies. In this approach, large corporations

participate in the development of successful and stable

(20) minority businesses by making use of government-

sponsored venture capital. The capital is used by a

participating company to establish a Minority Enterprise

Small Business Investment Company or MESBIC. The

MESBIC then provides capital and guidance to minority

(25) businesses that have potential to become future suppliers

or customers of the sponsoring company.

MESBIC's are the result of the belief that providing

established firms with easier access to relevant manage-

ment techniques and more job-specific experience, as

(30) well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms

a greater opportunity to develop sound business founda-

tions than does simply making general management

experience and small amounts of capital available.

Further, since potential markets for the minority busi-

(35) nesses already exist through the sponsoring companies,  

the minority businesses face considerably less risk in

terms of location and market fluctuation. Following

early financial and operating problems, sponsoring

corporations began to capitalize MESBIC's far above

(40) the legal minimum of $500,000 in order to generate

sufficient income and to sustain the quality of manage-

ment needed. MESBIC'c are now emerging as increas-

ingly important financing sources for minority enter-


 (45)  Ironically, MESBIC staffs, which usually consist of

Hispanic and Black professionals, tend to approach

investments in minority firms more pragmatically than

do many MESBIC directors, who are usually senior

managers from sponsoring corporations. The latter

(50) often still think mainly in terms of the " social responsi-

bility approach" and thus seem to prefer deals that are

riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria

would warrant. Such differences in viewpoint have pro-

duced uneasiness among many minority staff members,

(55) who feel that minority entrepreneurs and businesses

should be judged by established business considerations.

These staff members believe their point of view is closer

to the original philosophy of MESBIC's and they are

concerned that, unless a more prudent course is fol-

lowed, MESBIC directors may revert to policies likely

to re-create the disappointing results of the original SBA


17. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

(A) The use of MESBIC's for aiding minority entrepreneurs seems to have greater potential for success than does the original SBA approach.

(B) There is a crucial difference in point of view between the staff and directors of some MESBIC's.

(C) After initial problems with management and marketing, minority businesses have begun to expand at a steady rate.

(D) Minority entrepreneurs wishing to form new businesses now have several equally successful federal programs on which to rely.

(E) For the first time since 1960, large corporations are making significant contributions to the development of minority businesses.

18. According to the passage, the MESBIC approach differs from the SBA approach in that MESBIC's

(A) seek federal contracts to provide markets for minority businesses

(B) encourage minority businesses to provide markets for other minority businesses

(C) attempt to maintain a specified rate of growth in the minority business sector

(D) rely on the participation of large corporations to finance minority businesses

(E) select minority businesses on the basis of their location

19. Which of the following does the author cite to support the conclusion that the results of the SBA program were disappointing?

(A) The small number of new minority enterprises formed as a result of the program

(B) The small number of minority enterprises that took advantage of the management and technical assistance offiered under the program

(C) The small percentage of the nation's business receipts earned by minority enterprises following the programs, implementation.

(D) The small percentage of recipient minority enterprises that were able to repay federally guaranteed loans made under the program

(E) The small number of minority enterprises that chose to participate in the program

20. Which of the following statements about the SBA program can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The maximum term for loans made to recipient businesses was 15 years.

(B) Business loans were considered to be more useful to recipient businesses than was management and technical assistance.

(C) The anticipated failure rate for recipient businesses was significantly lower than the rate that actually resulted.

(D) Recipient businesses were encouraged to relocate to areas more favorable for business development.

(E) The capitalization needs of recipient businesses were assessed and then provided for adequately.


21. Based on information in the passage, which of the following would be indicative of the pragmatism of MESBIC staff members?

  I. A reluctance to invest in minority businesses that show marginal expectations of return on the investments

  II. A desire to invest in minority businesses that produce goods and services likely to be of use to the sponsoring company

  III. A belief that the minority business sector is best served by investing primarily in newly established businesses

(A) I only

(B) III only 

(C) I and II only

(D) II and III only

(E) I, II and III

22. The author refers to the " financial and operating problems" (line 38 ) encountered by MESBIC's primarily in order to 

(A) broaden the scope of the discussion to include the legal considerations of funding MESBIC'S through sponsoring companies

(B) call attention to the fact that MESBIC's must receive adequate funding in order to function effectively

(C) show that sponsoring companies were willing to invest only $500,000 of government-sponsored venture capital in the original MESBIC's

(D) compare SBA and MESBIC limits on minimum funding 

(E) refute suggestions that MESBIC's have been only marginally successful

23. The author's primary objective in the passage is to

(A) disprove the view that federal efforts to aid minority businesses have been ineffective

(B) explain how federal efforts to aid minority businesses have changed since the 1960's

(C) establish a direct link between the federal efforts to aid minority businesses made before the 1960's and those made in the 1980's

(D) analyze the basis for the belief that job-specific experience is more useful to minority businesses than is general management experience

(E) argue that the " social responsibility approach" to aiding minority businesses is superior to any other approach

24. It can be inferred from the passage that the attitude of some MESBIC staff members toward the investments preferred by some MESBIC directors can best be described as

(A) defensive

(B) resigned   

(C) indifferent

(D) shocked 

(E) disapproving 

25. The passage provides information that would answer which of the following questions?

(A) What was the average annual amount, in dollars, of minority business receipts before the SBA strategy as implemented?  

(B) What locations are considered to be unfavorable for minority businesses?

(C) What is the current success rate for minority businesses that are capitalized by MESBIC's?

(D) How has the use of federal funding for minority businesses changed since the 1960's?

(E) How do minority businesses apply to participate in a MESBIC program?



Time –35 minutes

25 Questions

1. The university's constitution defines the powers of two governing bodies. The general council, which currently retains authority over constitutional matters, consists of all the university's living alumni. The twenty-member senate decides routine matters by majority vote. A new proposal suggests making a unanimous vote in the senate sufficient to change the constitution.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must follow on the basis of them?

(A) The proposal will take effect only if it receives the senate's unanimous support.

(B) Currently each member of the senate has power of veto over any proposal that comes before that body.

(C) Adopting the proposal would allow passage of constitutional changes without the general council's approval.

(D) Any of the university's alumni can fill any one of the twenty seats on the senate.

(E) Adopting the new proposal would increase the voice of the alumni in the conduct of university affairs.

2.Comparison of the growth rings of ancient trees enables scientists to determine from a piece of timber the year in which the tree used for the timber was felled. Hence, by analyzing the growth rings in timber surviving from ancient buildings, archaeologists can determine precisely when those buildings were constructed.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The timber used for construction purposes in ancient times was made from very old trees.

(B) The timber that was used in ancient building construction had not, prior to being used in the construction of the buildings, lain unused for an indeterminable amount of time.

(C) The growth rings of any tree felled in a given year are identical to the growth rings of any other tree felled in that year.

(D) The oldest of the ancient buildings that survive to the present day were constructed of the most durable woods.

(E) Ancient builders did not use more than one type of wood for the construction of a given building.

Questions 3-8

A researcher has designed an experiment to evaluate a theory about the health benefits of exercise at different times during the day. Nine subjects--F, G, H, J, K, M, O, P, and S--must be divided into three groups of three subjects each. Group 1 will exercise in the morning; group 2 will exercise in the afternoon; group 3 will exercise in the evening. The researcher must assign subjects to groups according to the following conditions:

  F must be assigned to group 2.   

  H must be assigned to the same group as O.    

  J cannot be assigned to group 2.

  M cannot be assigned to group 3.       

  P cannot be assigned to the same group as S.

3.Which of the following is an acceptable assignment of subjects to the three groups?

 Group1    Group2      Group3

(A) F, M, P    H, J, O      G, K, S

(B) G, J, M    F, H, O      K, P, S

(C) G, K, P    F, M, S     H, J, O

(D) H, J, M    F, G, P      K, O, S

(E) H, O, P    F, G, J       K, M, S

4.If H, J, and O are assigned to group 1, which of the following must be assigned to group 2?

(A) G

(B) K

(C) M

(D) P

(E) S

5.If O is assigned to group 2,which of the following could be the subjects assigned to group 1?

(A) G, J, M

(B) G, K, M

(C) G, K, P

(D) J, M, S

(E) M, P, S

6.If G, J,and M are assigned to group 1, which of the following must be assigned to group 2?

(A) H

(B) K

(C) O

(D) P

(E) S

7.If G, K,and S are assigned to group 1, which of the following must be the subjects assigned to group 3?

(A) F, H, O

(B) H, J, O

(C) H, J, P

(D) J, M, P

(E) M, O, P

8.If G, J,and P are assigned to group 1, which of the following must be true?

(A) H is assigned to group 3.

(B) K is assigned to group 3.

(C) M is assigned to group 3.

(D) O is assigned to group 2.

(E) S is assigned to group 2.

9.Fossilized animal bones marked with scratches other than tooth marks were discovered in the sand near some stone tools. When bones were scratched using similar tools, the resulting scratches resembled the scratches found on the fossils. Therefore, stone tools had probably been used on the animal bones that became fossilized.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

(A) The fossilized bones with scratches are not as old as nearby fossilized bones found to have tooth marks.

(B) Trampling on sand in which a bone is buried produces scratches on that bone that are similar to those on the fossils.

(C) Stone tools have been found in areas where nearby fossilized bones were not scratched.

(D) The stone tools were too hard to be scratched by animal bones.

(E) Modern microscopes can clearly reveal the differences between tooth marks and other kinds of scratches.

10.Color-tinting of movies originally photographed in black-and-white is inappropriate. Hundreds of the original artistic choices would have been made differently had these movies been filmed in color. Lighting on the sets of these movies was arranged to make highlights and shadows look right in black-and-white.

Which of the following claims, if substituted for the claim about the lighting of movie sets, would lend the same type of support to the argument above?

(A) An important part of what gives these movies their identity is the result of the black-and-white format.

(B) Color film would have better captured the film-makers' intentions.

(C) Color film is superior to black-and-white film for making movies.

(D) Makeup for the actors was applied so as to look best in black-and-white films.

(E) The choice of black-and-white film over color film is entirely a matter of taste.

11.In Borkland, university scholarship stipends worth $4.2 million were unclaimed last year because several scholarship programs attracted no applicants who met the programs' qualifying criteria. This is an egregious waste of funds in a country where thousands of promising students each year cannot afford tuition. Qualifying criteria for those scholarships, therefore, should be revised.

Which of the following, if true about Borkland, most strongly supports the conclusion drawn above?

(A) Many scholarships are unclaimed not because their qualifying criteria are too restrictive but because the scholarship programs rarely announce the scholarships' availability.

(B) Because of inflation, the stipends offered by certain scholarship programs now appear less attractive to potential applicants than they did when they were first offered.

(C) A significant number of scholarship programs awarded all of their available scholarship stipends last year, yet most of those programs have very restrictive qualifying criteria.

(D) Certain scholarship programs accept applications only from students enrolled in specific major fields of study, but Borkland's universities no longer offer courses in the fields specified by many of those programs.

(E) Several scholarship programs have found it impossible to revise their qualifying criteria without engaging in lengthy and costly legal proceedings.

12.In Diersville the new Environmental Action party won two seats on the seven-member town council in 1988. It lost both of those seats in the 1992 election, even though the party's pro-environment platform had essentially remained unchanged. This decline in the party's fortunes clearly demonstrates that in Diersville environmental concerns faded in significance between 1988 and 1992.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Between 1988 and 1992, the number of eligible voters in Diersville rose, but not the percentage who actually voted.

(B) Between 1988 and 1992, Diersville's leading political party revised its platform, adopting a strongly environmentalist stance.

(C) The parties that ran candidates in the 1992 election in Diersville were the same as those that had done so in the 1988 election.

(D) In 1992 the Environmental Action party won fewer votes in Diersville than it had won in 1988.

(E) Between 1988 and 1992, some measures intended to benefit the environment had been adopted by the town council, but with inconclusive results.

Questions 13-17

A gardener is landscaping part of a front yard with six types of bushes--forsythia, holly, lilac, oleander, rose, and spirea. The forsythia and the lilac bushes are the only bushes classified as tall bushes. The gardener will plant two clusters of exactly four bushes each, one on the east edge of the property and one on the west edge. The selection of the bushes is subject to the following constraints:

Each type of bush must be used at least once.

Each cluster of bushes must contain at least one tall bush.

A cluster that includes one or more forsythia bushes must include at least one oleander bush.

A lilac bush cannot be planted in the same cluster as a spirea bush.

13.If three lilac bushes are selected for one cluster, which of the following can be the bushes selected for the other cluster?

(A) Forsythia, holly, oleander, rose.

(B) Forsythia, holly, rose, spirea.

(C) Forsythia, lilac, oleander, spirea.

(D) Forsythia, oleander, rose, spirea.

(E) Holly, oleander, rose, spirea.

14.Which of the following can be the selection of bushes for one of the clusters?

(A) Forsythia, holly, oleander, rose.

(B) Forsythia, holly, oleander, spirea.

(C) Forsythia, lilac, rose, rose.

(D) Forsythia, oleander, oleander, oleander.

(E) Lilac, lilac, rose, spirea.

15.If a total of two forsythia bushes is selected, which of the following must be true?

(A) Only one holly bush is selected.

(B) Only one rose bush is selected.

(C) Only one spirea bush is selected.

(D) Two oleander bushes are selected.

(E) The two forsythia bushes are in the same cluster.

16.If one rose bush is selected for each cluster, which of the following combinations must complete one of the clusters?

(A) Forsythia, forsythia, oleander.

(B) Forsythia, lilac, oleander.

(C) Forsythia, oleander, spirea.

(D) Holly, holly,holly.

(E) Holly, lilac, oleander.

17.If one forsythia bush is selected for the east cluster, and if two holly bushes are selected for the west cluster, then any of the following can be selected for the east cluster EXCEPT

(A) holly

(B) lilac

(C) oleander

(D) rose

(E) spirea

Questions 18-22

A ballroom dance competition will be held between two teams, the Green team and the Red team. The Green team consists of couple H, couple I, and couple K. The Red team consists of couple X, couple Y, and couple Z. During the competition, each team will perform three types of dances--the fox-trot, the tango, and the waltz. Each couple on each team will perform exactly one of the three types of dances. At any one time, only one couple will be performing, but the six couples can perform in any order until all dances have been performed. The following rules also apply to the competition:

The same type of dance cannot be performed twice in succession.

Couple H cannot dance the waltz.

Couple I cannot dance the tango.

Couple Y must dance the waltz.

18.If couple K dances a fox-trot, which of the following couples must dance a tango?

(A) H

(B) I

(C) X

(D) Y

(E) Z

19.Which of the following could be the schedule for the competition's first three dances?

Fox-trot Tango Waltz

(A) H     I     Z

(B) K     I        Y

(C) X      Z       H

(D) Y     K       I

(E) Z      H       Y

20.If the competition schedule strictly alternates couples on the Green team with couples on the Red team, and if couple Y dances fourth, then a waltz must be performed

(A) first

(B) second

(C) third

(D) fifth

(E) sixth

21.If the third through the sixth dances in the competition are the fox-trot, the tango, the waltz, and the tango, respectively, then couple X can perform in any of the following positions EXCEPT.

(A) first

(B) second

(C) third

(D) fourth

(E) sixth

22.Assume that the order of the couples, from first to sixth, has been established as X, Y, Z, H, I, and K. If couple X performs a fox-trot, which of the following couples must also perform a fox-trot?

(A) H

(B) I

(C) K

(D) Y

(E) Z

23.The United States is not usually thought of as a nation of parakeet lovers. Yet in a census of parakeet owners in selected comparable countries, the United States ranked second, with eleven parakeet owners per hundred people. The conclusion can be drawn from this that people in the United States are more likely to own parakeets than are people in most other countries.    

Knowledge of which of the following would be most useful in judging the accuracy of the conclusion?

(A) The number of parakeets in the United States.

(B) The number of parakeet owners in the United States.

(C) The number of parakeet owners per hundred people in the country that ranked first in the census.

(D) The number of parakeet owners in the United States compared to the numbers of owners of other pet birds in the United States.

(E) The numbers of parakeet owners per hundred people in the countries not included in the census.

24.Until 1984 only aspirin and acetaminophen shared the lucrative nonprescription pain-reliever market. In 1984, however, ibuprofen was expected to account for fifteen percent of all nonprescription pain-reliever sales. On that basis business experts predicted for 1984 a corresponding fifteen percent decrease in the combined sales of aspirin and acetaminophen.

The prediction mentioned in the last sentence above was based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Most consumers would prefer ibuprofen to both aspirin and acetaminophen.

(B) Aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen all relieve headache pain and muscular aches, but aspirin and ibuprofen can also cause stomach irritation.

(C) Before 1984 ibuprofen was available only as a prescription medicine.

(D) The companies that manufacture and sell aspirin and acetaminophen would not also manufacture and sell ibuprofen.

(E) The introduction of ibuprofen would not increase total sales of nonprescription pain reliever.

Questions 25 is based on the following graph.




Which of the following, if true, utters the best explanation for the growing disparity in the earning levels of the two groups in the graph presented above?

(A) Since 1985 there has been a decline in the total number of Ansonians who have only a high school diploma.

(B) Since 1985 the percentage of Ansonians without a college degree who are unemployed has remained relatively constant.

(C) Government financial support for educational research in Ansonia has declined since 1985.

(D) The enactment of generous social security legislation by the Ansonian parliament has allowed many Ansonians with only a high school diploma to retire at full salary at age 63.

(E) The shift in Ansonia from an industrial to a service economy has resulted in a net loss of high-paying jobs traditionally available to Ansonians with only a high school diploma.




1. A

2. C

3. B

4. A

5. B

6. B

7. B

8. D

9. D

10. E

11. C

12. E

13. C

14. B

15. C

16. D

17. A

18. C

19. E

20. B

21. D

22. A

23. B

24. D

25. C


1. D

2. A

3. E

4. B

5. C

6. C

7. B

8. C

9. E

10. C

11. D

12. B

13. C

14. E

15. E

16. D

17. B

18. C

19. E

20. E

21. B

22. A

23. A

24. C

25. B


1. D

2. D

3. D

4. A

5. D

6. E

7. B

8. B

9. A

10. B

11. E

12. E

13. C

14. A

15. C

16. B

17. A

18. D

19. C

20. C

21. C

22. B

23. B

24. E

25. D


1. C

2. B

3. C

4. C

5. D

6. B

7. B

8. A

9. B

10. D

11. D

12. B

13. D

14. B

15. C

16. C

17. B

18. A

19. E

20. A

21. B

22. A

23. E

24. E

25. E