Doping in sport is when an athlete uses banned substances to stimulate the growth of muscles and improve performance and physical strength in general, achieving the best results in the sport that you practice.
During sports competitions like the Olympics and World Cup, the athletes must pass doping tests, which evaluate if there are prohibited substances in the body. In the case of a positive test for doping, the athlete is eliminated from the competition.
Because the doping helps athletes
Use chemical substances that are not natural to the body helps to improve the overall performance of the athlete, bringing benefits such as:
Increase concentration, and improve physical capacity;
Relieve the pain of the exercises and decrease the muscle fatigue;
Increase the mass and muscle strength;
Relax the body and improve concentration;
Help you lose weight quickly.
Thus, taking these substances causes the athlete to have results faster and better than you can achieve only through training and diet, and, therefore, they are prohibited in sport.
However, even with the ban, many athletes tend to use these substances for 3 to 6 months before the official competition, during your workouts to increase your success, stopping after their use to allow time for the body to eliminate the substances and the drug test to give a negative.
When and which tests are made
To evaluate the presence of doping, the athletes should do tests of urine and blood before, during or after the competition. In general, the winners of the tournaments need to take the exams to prove they have not used prohibited substances.
In addition, the examinations can also be made outside of the competition period and without prior notice, being the athletes chosen by the drawing of lots.
The substances most commonly used
The substances used for doping are:
Erythropoietin (EPO):helps increase the cells that carry oxygen in the blood, improving the performance;
Furosemide: a powerful diuretic that helps to decrease weight quickly, mainly used by athletes struggle with weight categories. Also helps to dilute and to conceal other prohibited substances in the urine;
Energy:increase the attention and the disposition, by decreasing the feeling of fatigue;
Anabolic:hormones used to increase strength and muscle mass.
In addition, athletes and his team are given a list with recommendations and medications that may not be used during workouts because they contain substances considered illegal in the sport.
Thus, it is necessary to be attentive even during treatments of common diseases like the flu and high cholesterol, and skin problems, because even without the intention of doping, the athlete may be eliminated from the competition.