Bridge Burundi

Nestled in the heart of Africa’s Great Lakes Region, Burundi is a landlocked country bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Its central location in East Africa makes it a strategic crossroads between the East African Community and the Southern African Development Community.



Burundi’s climate varies from tropical in the lowlands to temperate in the highlands. The country experiences distinct wet and dry seasons, with the wet season typically occurring from October to April and the dry season from May to September. The highlands enjoy cooler temperatures, while the lowlands can be hot and humid.


Despite its small size, Burundi boasts a diverse range of wildlife, including elephants, hippos, crocodiles, antelopes, and various bird species. The country’s national parks and nature reserves, such as Kibira National Park and Ruvubu National Park, provide sanctuary for these animals and contribute to conservation efforts.

Longest Rivers

Burundi is blessed with several rivers, with the most significant being the Kagera River, which forms part of the country’s border with Tanzania. The Kagera River is a vital water source for both Burundi and its neighboring countries, supporting agriculture, fishing, and transportation.

Highest Mountains

Mount Heha, located in the Bururi Province in the southwestern part of the country, is the highest peak in Burundi, reaching an elevation of approximately 2,670 meters (8,760 feet) above sea level. It is part of the Burundi Highlands, which extend across the country’s southern border with Tanzania.



The area that is now Burundi has been inhabited for thousands of years, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Stone Age. The region was home to various indigenous peoples, including the Twa, Hutu, and Tutsi, who developed distinct cultures and societies.

Ancient Kingdoms

Burundi’s history is intertwined with that of its neighboring country, Rwanda, with both nations sharing similar cultural and political developments. The region was once ruled by powerful monarchies, including the Kingdom of Burundi, which emerged in the 17th century and flourished until the colonial era.

Colonial Era

Burundi, along with Rwanda, came under German colonial rule in the late 19th century before being transferred to Belgian control after World War I. The Belgians imposed a system of indirect rule, exacerbating ethnic tensions between the Hutu and Tutsi populations, which would later contribute to conflict and instability.

Independence and Modern Age

Burundi gained independence from Belgium in 1962, becoming a republic with a constitutional monarchy. However, the country’s post-independence period was marred by ethnic violence and political turmoil, culminating in a series of coups and civil wars. In recent years, Burundi has made efforts to rebuild and reconcile, although challenges remain.


Burundi has a population of approximately 12 million people, with a diverse mix of ethnic groups, including the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa. The Hutu constitute the majority of the population, followed by the Tutsi and Twa minorities. French and Kirundi are the official languages, and Christianity is the predominant religion.

Administrative Divisions

Burundi is divided into 18 provinces, each with its own governor and administrative structure. These provinces are further subdivided into communes, which are then divided into collines (hills) and villages, providing a hierarchical system of local governance.

Administrative Divisions and Population (2022 estimate)

  1. Bubanza Province – Population: 900,000
  2. Bujumbura Mairie Province – Population: 1,200,000
  3. Bujumbura Rural Province – Population: 1,400,000
  4. Bururi Province – Population: 900,000
  5. Cankuzo Province – Population: 700,000
  6. Cibitoke Province – Population: 800,000
  7. Gitega Province – Population: 1,500,000
  8. Karuzi Province – Population: 1,100,000
  9. Kayanza Province – Population: 1,200,000
  10. Kirundo Province – Population: 1,000,000
  11. Makamba Province – Population: 1,000,000
  12. Muramvya Province – Population: 1,100,000
  13. Muyinga Province – Population: 1,300,000
  14. Mwaro Province – Population: 800,000
  15. Ngozi Province – Population: 1,300,000
  16. Rumonge Province – Population: 900,000
  17. Rutana Province – Population: 1,000,000
  18. Ruyigi Province – Population: 1,200,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Bujumbura
  2. Gitega
  3. Ngozi
  4. Muyinga
  5. Ruyigi
  6. Bururi
  7. Rumonge
  8. Kayanza
  9. Makamba
  10. Karuzi

Education Systems

Education in Burundi is provided by both government and private institutions and is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 7 and 13. The government has made efforts to improve access to education, particularly in rural areas, although challenges such as inadequate infrastructure and teacher shortages persist. The University of Burundi is the country’s largest and oldest university, offering a range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs.



Burundi has one major international airport, Bujumbura International Airport, located in the capital city. The airport serves as the primary gateway for international and domestic air travel.


Burundi does not have a railway network, with road transportation being the primary mode of travel and freight movement within the country.


The country has an extensive road network, consisting of paved and unpaved roads, which connect major cities and towns. However, road conditions can vary, particularly in rural areas.


Despite being landlocked, Burundi has access to Lake Tanganyika, one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world. The port of Bujumbura on Lake Tanganyika serves as a vital trade link for the country, facilitating the transportation of goods to and from neighboring countries.

Country Facts

  • Population: 12 million
  • Capital: Bujumbura
  • Languages: French (official), Kirundi
  • Religion: Christianity, Indigenous beliefs
  • Race: Hutu, Tutsi, Twa
  • Currency: Burundian Franc (BIF)
  • ISO Country Code: BI
  • International Calling Code: +257
  • Top-level Domain: .bi